Liposomes are small spherical-shaped artificial vesicles synthesized from phospholipids and cholesterol. They are colloidal carriers and range from 0.01 to 5.0 μm in diameter. These are lipid bilayer vesicles having hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Due to these properties liposomes have an advantage of encapsulating hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic drugs and delivering them to the targeted site in the body. Thus, liposomes are promising systems for targeted drug delivery. Liposomes are successfully used for encapsulating various drug molecules such as acyclovir, tropicamaide, chloroquine diphosphate, paclitaxel, and cyclosporine. Many therapeutic agents such as antimicrobials, anticancer drugs, genetic materials, vaccines, macromolecules, and proteins can be encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes are employed as drug carriers for targeted drug therapy for various diseases, as they are biocompatible and biodegradable.
The classification of liposomes is based on its structural properties or on the method of preparation used. Structurally, liposomes are classified into the following groups: multilamellar large vesicles (MLV), oligolamellar vesicles (OLV), unilamellar vesicles (UV), small unilamellar vesicles (SUV), medium-sized unilamellar vesicles (MUV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV), and multivesicular vesicles (MVV). In terms of preparation method used, liposomes can be classified into the following types: reverse phase evaporation method for single or oligolamellar vescile (REV), multilamellar vesicles (MLV) made by reverse phase evaporation method, stable plurilamellar vesicles, (FATMLV) frozen and thawed, vesicles prepared by extrusion method (VET), vesicles prepared by fusion (FUV), vesicles prepared by french press (FPV), dehydration?rehydration vesicles (DRV), and bubblesomes (BSV).
Development in scientific research in recent years has led to the rapid expansion of the global liposome drug delivery market. Increased understanding of targeted drug delivery system has fuelled the liposome drug delivery system market. Advantages such as improvement and control over pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, decreased toxicity, and enhanced activity of drugs against intracellular pathogens are key divers for pharmaceutical companies to invest in the global liposomes drug delivery market. Currently, there are a number of liposomal products such as ambisome, myocet, doxil, depoCyt, etc., approved by the FDA for commercial usage. However, low solubility, short half-life and high production cost are key restraints of the global liposome drug delivery market.
In terms of type of industry, the liposome drug delivery market can be segmented into pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, and farming. The pharmaceutical industry segment led the global liposomes market due to rapid advancements in targeted drug delivery systems. In terms of product, the market can be segmented into liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal amphoteracin B, and liposomal paclitaxel. Liposomal amphoteracin B is used in the treatment of various fungal and parasitic infections. In terms of application, the global liposomes drug delivery market can be segmented into therapeutic and clinical. Therapeutic applications include occular and pulmonary applications, whereas clinical applications consists of cancer (antitumor) therapy and fungal and microbial infection therapy. Ongoing research and advancement in liposome design are leading to new applications for the delivery of new biotechnology products such as recombinant proteins antisense oligonucleotides and cloned genes.
In terms of geography, the global liposomes drug delivery market can be segmented into North America (Canada, the U.S., and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, the U.K., Russia, and Italy), Asia Pacific (Japan, China, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia), Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is a leading market for liposomes drug delivery systems due to increase in novel technologies in targeted drug delivery systems. The market is anticipated to expand during the forecast period in other parts of the globe as well.
Prominent manufacturers operating in the global liposome drug delivery market include Johnson & Johnson, Sun Pharmaceutical, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Novartis AG, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Kingond Pharm, and Celsion Corporation.
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