Heart failure is one of the most common cause of deaths worldwide, it is a condition when the heart cannot pump blood properly throughout the body. In most of the cases the left ventricle gets affected but sometimes the right ventricle gets affected and the heart cannot pump oxygen rich blood to the lungs. Ventricle assist devices are mechanical pumps which support the functioning of the heart in individuals who have weak heart. There are two types of heart failure one is diastolic heart failure and the other systolic heart failure. The major symptoms of heart failure are fatigue, irregular heart rhythm, blood pressure, heart valve functioning is affected, shortness of breath and fluid retention. Most of the above symptoms can be stabilized by the use of medication but in some cases ventricle assist devices have to be used depending upon the condition of the patient.
A ventricle assist device comprises of a small tubes transferring blood out of heart and into the pump, the heart pump is connected to a control unit, which monitors the functioning of the ventricle assist device. Recent research has shown that continuous flow ventricle assist devices are more effective as they reduce the hospitalization and improve survival rate of patients suffering from heart failure. The different types of ventricle assist devices available in the market, left ventricle support, right ventricle support and bi-ventricle support.
The ventricle assist devices are used for short-term period for individuals recovering from myocardial infraction or individuals recovering from cardiac surgery, and for long term use in individuals suffering from total heart failure. Ventricle devices are generally used as bridge to transplant, bridge to decision and bridge to recovery for an individual who is suffering from Class III & Class IV heart failure. Ventricle assist devices are generally implantable and transcutaneous depending on the individual heart condition.
Transcutaneous ventricle assist devices have the control unit installed outside the body and the pump placed inside the body whereas implantable ventricle assist devices are generally used for people waiting for heart transplant. Ventricle assist devices are generally categorized as Pulsatile and Non Pulsatile devices. Pulsatile devices were the first generation devices, whereas non pulsatile devices have a continuous flow as they allow the blood to move forward in a systemic circulation. In a non-pulsatile ventricle assist device all the parameters are displayed on the console or the control unit. Some of the common ventricle assist devices in the market are Thoratec VAD, Heart Mate and Jarvik 2000.Ventricle assist devices although have great benefits but some time they may give rise to certain complication like bleeding, infection, thrombosis, device malfunctioning and hemolysis.
When both the ventricle stop functioning or the entire heart fails, bi-ventricle assist devices are used and Total Artificial Heart is implanted. The rapid advancement in ventricle assist device technology has limited the TAH (Total Artificial Heart) development as majority of the heart failure can be controlled by using ventricle assist devices. At present the only TAH approved by the FDA is the Cardio West TAH by Syncardia System, which is a pneumatically powered dual chamber device.
The global market for ventricle assist devices is expected to be driven by the advancement in technology and increasing prevalence of Class III & Class IV heart failure, increase in geriatric population, better reimbursement reforms are some factors anticipated to fuel growth of global ventricle assist devices market within the forecast period of 2016-2026. However the high cost certain complication which may arise after or during the implant and development of the total artificial heart can be the restraint for the growth of this market.
Cost-effectiveness of ventricle assist devices and ongoing researches on improving quality of care for continence would create an attractive growth opportunities for the ventricle assist device market. The hospitals end user segment is expected to hold the highest market share in global market for ventricle assist devices.
A new generation of ventricle assist devices have been approved by the FDA which are more efficient in increasing the survival rate of individuals suffering from heart failure. These devices are much small smaller in size and much more efficient in restoring the functioning of the heart. These are centrifugal continuous flow pumps suspended through magnetic or hydrodynamic levitation in blood flow path, this levitation mechanism theoretically increases the device durability and reliability as there is no friction and heat generation component contact. The third generation left ventricle assist devices are more used in Europe.
Region wise, the global ventricle assist device market is classified into regions namely, North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan, Middle East and Africa. North America dominated the global market for ventricle assist devices because of better reimbursement policies for diagnostic procedures. Europe dominates the market for the third generation ventricle assist devices.
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Some of the key players in global ventricle assist device market are SynCardia System Inc., St. Jude Medical, Berlin Heart, Heart Ware International, Jarvik Heart Inc. Abiomed, CardiacAssist Inc., and Reliant Heart Inc.