Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is a process of formation of new blood vessels from endothelial cells or the pre-existing vessels. VEGF’s normal function is during embryonic development, the formation of new blood vessels after injury, in muscle after exercise and as a bypass for a blocked vessel. Overexpression of VEGF can be fatal as they can grow into cancerous cells. VEGF plays both beneficial and damaging roles in organisms. VEGF takes circulating endothelial precursor cells and acts as a growth medium for immature tumor cells. The affinity of VEGF toward endothelial cells is mediated through VEGF-specific tyrosine-kinase receptor: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. Hence VEGF and its receptors play a major role in the growth of tumor cells. The endotheliotropic property of VEGF causes a major concern for developing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor. The VEGF family in mammals comprises of members VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and PIGF, out of these the VEGF-A is responsible for angiogenesis and migration and mitosis of endothelial cells. Many therapeutic strategies are developed for inhibiting the signal transduction of VEGF. Some of the therapeutic options are monoclonal antibodies against VEGF or VEGFR, soluble VEGF and VEGFR hybrids and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
The global increase in the prevalence of cancer and recognition of therapeutic opportunities offered by oncology treatments have boosted pharmaceutical industry to develop new agents to treat cancer. According to WHO, the new cancer cases are expected to rise by 70% in coming two decades. Approximately 60% of malignant tumors express high concentrations of VEGF, therapeutic option to inhibit the VEGF tumor causing pathway has become a major concern for all researchers.
Some of the restraining factors for VEGF inhibitor to be a silver bullet in the treatment of cancer is that angiogenesis is not the only factor causing a tumor. While the lesser known restraints are the side effects caused by VEGF inhibitors are bleeding and increased blood pressure
The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor market is segmented according to the mode of action of the drug, route of administration, end users, and geography. The segmentation by mode of action of the drug is tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibits the adenosine triphosphate binding site, monoclonal antibody: they bind to VEGF-A preventing it from binding to receptors and activating the signaling cascades that lead to angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor hybrids: act as a decoy receptor and prevents binding of the ligand to its natural receptors. By route of administration, it is segmented as oral and intravenous. By end user, the segmentation is classified as hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, and cancer research institutes. Segmentation by Geography is North America, West Europe, APEJ, Japan, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Middle East and Africa.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors are also termed as Angiogenesis Inhibitor which inhibits the growth of the new blood vessels. Angiogenesis Inhibitors are effective in the treatment of cancer macular degeneration in the eye and diseases that involve proliferation of blood vessels. VEGF or angiogenesis is regulated by the activity of endogenous stimulators and inhibitors. Endogenous inhibitors are present in the body involved in regulating the process of blood vessel formation. Endogenous inhibitors are derived from the cellular matrix and basement protein. Among the factors responsible for angiogenesis, VEGF is the most potent and has high expression in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Inhibition of angiogenesis by VEGF requires anti – VEGF / anti – angiogenesis factors which reduce the production of pro – angiogenic factor thereby preventing them from binding to their receptors. The commonly used therapy for VEGF pathway inhibition is a monoclonal antibody against VEGF or VEGFR, soluble VEGFR hybrids, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Among this, the most widely used treatment is with monoclonal antibody Bevacizumab.
The monoclonal antibody segment is growing faster in North America and Europe vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor marketvascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor market. North America region accounts for the largest market share for tyrosine kinase inhibitor followed by Asia-Pacific and Europe. China will drive the Asia Pacific market by providing growth opportunities from upcoming companies. In the Asia-Pacific market, the countries like China, India and South Asian countries will dominate the market. According to WHO the emerging market for cancer is Africa, Asia, and the US.
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Some of the players in the market of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitor are Pfizer Inc., Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, AstraZeneca, Bayer Healthcare, Merck & Co. Inc., Genetech Inc., Eli Lilly, Sanofi Aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol-Myer Squibb and Boehringer Ingelheim