Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), also known as childhood epileptic encephalopathy or pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is characterized by multiple tonic-clonic seizures; mental retardation; reduced intellectual powder; and abnormal findings on electroencephalography. This type of epilepsy makes up to 1% to 2% of all the epilepsies. It is most commonly observed between second and sixth year of life. Tonic seizure, mostly nocturnal (about 90%), is common in LGS. Intellectual and behavioral problems make it more complex. These seizures are hard to control and require life-long treatment. There is a large unmet need of novel medicines as the seizures do not respond completely to the available therapies. The treatment focuses on providing the best quality of life with fewer seizures reducing to none, less medication, and minimum adverse effects.
The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome market can be segmented by type of therapy, advanced diagnosis devices, safety and protection devices to avoid accidental deaths, and region. Based on type of therapy, the market can be classified as medication, surgery, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, and ketogenic diet products. Drugs used for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are classified as anticonvulsants and CNS depressants. These are the first line treatments used conventionally. Valproic acid has been dominating the market for anticonvulsant drugs from two decades. Other drugs include lamotrigine, topiramate, felbamate, zonisamide, and vigabtrin. Generally, a combination of two or more antiepileptic drugs is preferred for enhanced efficacy.
Commonly prescribed CNS depressants are clonazepam, nitrazepam, and clobazepam. Clonazepam is considered as an effective first line agent; however, its side effects and development of tolerance limit are restraining its market growth. Surgical therapies used in the management of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are corpus callosotomy, vagus nerve stimulation, and focal cortical resection. Among these, corpus callosotomy is effective in reducing the drop attacks. Vagus nerve stimulation by means of surgically implanted programmable device has been approved by the FDA. A study by Medline suggests that approximately three-fourths of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have shown 50% reduction in the frequency of seizures with a follow-up period of five years. This device is projected to experience a prominent market growth during the forecast period. New techniques for the detection and recording of seizures are being developed. A significant number of death cases in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are reported as a result of accidental falls. It has created a high demand for safety devices to prevent accidental deaths.
Geographically, the market is distributed over North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the global Lennox-Gastaut market due to extensive research and development activities in the neurology field and presence of pharmaceutical industries. It is followed by Europe. The reasons for high prevalence rate in these regions are availability of advanced diagnostic devices and treatment options and increase in awareness about health. In Asia Pacific, India is an emerging market with increased number of prevalence cases. According to a study published by NCBI in 2011, Uttarakhand and Kerala have the highest prevalence rate in India. In Europe, there is a high prevalence of LGS in Denmark, the U.K., and Italy. Middle East & Africa is projected to be an emerging market for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome during the forecast period.
Key players operating in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome market are Novartis AG, Pfizer, Inc., Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi S.A., UCB Pharma Ltd., Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Cephalon, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc., Marinus Pharmaceuticals, and Johnson & Johnson. These key players are focusing on the expansion of their businesses to increase their market shares. Certain strategies trending are novel drug delivery system development, mergers, and acquisitions.
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